Steeped in antiquity, Tarn Taran dates back to the times of the fifth sikh Guru Shri Guru Arjan Dev ji (1563-1606). He laid the foundation of this city in 1596 and the milestone was laid for the welfare of people with the establishment of Shri Tarn Taran Sahib Temple. Tarn Taran Sahib was part of the Bhangi Misl ruled by a powerful Sikh family of Dhillon clan from (1716-1810). In 1947, the year of the Partition of India and the Partition of Punjab, Tarn Taran was the only tehsil (district) in Punjab along with Shiekhupura, Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Hoshiapur, Kapurthala, Amritsar, Lyallpur, Patiala with a majority Sikh population.
Guru Sahib created this city for the welfare of people. He was the first to initiate the noble cause of curing the leprosy patients. It was later strengthened by the setup of leprosy Home by Church Missionary society in 1885.
Tarn Taran is the pivot of Sikh culture and has many historical Gurdwaras. With so many Gurudwaras of historic importance, this makes the Majha belt a historic sikh centre of gathering and interest. The city has many historical Gurudwaras which include Darbar Sahib Sri Guru Arjan Dev Ji, Gurdwara Guru Ka Khuh (Gurdwara of the Guru's Well), Gurdwara Bibi Bhani Da Khuh, Gurdwara Takkar Sahib, Gurdwara Lakeer Sahib, Gurudwara Baba Garja Singh Baba Bota Singh, Gurdwara Jhulne Mahal, and Thatti Khara.
As of 2001 Indian census, Tarn Taran Sahib had a population of 130,587. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Tarn Taran has an average literacy rate of 70%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 60%, and female literacy is 40%. In Tarn Taran Sahib, 12% of the population is under 6 years of age and 15% is elderly. 3% of its residents have settled abroad. Sikhs form 89.1% of the total population of the district with Hindus being 9.8% and Christians 1.1% of the total population. It should be noted that Tarn Taran district has the highest Sikh percentage among all the districts of Punjab followed by Moga at 87%. As of 2001 Indian census, Tarn Taran Sahib had a population of 130,587. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Tarn Taran has an average literacy rate of 70%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 60%, and female literacy is 40%. In Tarn Taran Sahib, 12% of the population is under 6 years of age and 15% is elderly. 3% of its residents have settled abroad. Sikhs form 89.1% of the total population of the district with Hindus being 9.8% and Christians 1.1% of the total population.
Location, Extent & Communication
Tarn Taran district lies between 31 0 05’, and 31 0 30’ 05 north latitude 74 0 30’ and 75 0 15’ 05“ east longitudes. The area falls in Survey Of India topo sheet Nos 44-I & 44-M. It has a geographical area of 2449 sq. km. It is bounded by Amritsar district in the north ,Kaputhala district in the east, Pakistant in the west , and Firozpure district in the south. The district head quarters is located atTarn Taran. The total population of the district is 939057( census-2001)The district has 88.02% rural population with a decadle growth of 23.60 %.The area is well connected by roads and railways. National highways 1, 1a,and 15 pass through the area and connect the important towns falling in the tract.Major towns are connected with broad gauge line of Northern Railways run through Khem Karan- Patti- Tarn Taran to Amritsar.
There are three tehsils namely Tarn Taran , Patti, and Khadur Sahib and five sub tehsils namely Jhabal, Chohla sahib, Khem Karan, Bhikiwind and Goindwal Sahib in the district.The district is divided into 8 development blocks namely Gandiwind, Bhikiwind,Tarn Taran,Khadur Sahib, Naushera Pannuan, Chohla Sahib,Patti. and Valtoha.
Tarn Taran district was formed in 2006 from Amritsar District. The declaration to this effect was made by Captain Amarinder Singh, Ex-Chief Minister of Punjab, during the celebrations marking the martyrdom day of Sri Guru Arjan Dev Ji. With this, it became the 19th district of Punjab. It has two tehsils, which are Patti, Khadur Sahib. The District Headquarters is headed by the Deputy Commissioner, along with a Senior Superintendent of Police, the Additional District and Sessions Judge, the Chief Judicial Magistrate, Civil Surgeon, District Education Officer, Improvement Trust and a Municipal Council.