District Profile Patiala
Patiala district is one of the famous princely states of erstwhile Punjab. Forming the south-eastern part of the state, it lies between 29°49’ and 30°47’ north latitude, 75°58’ and 76°54' east longitude.
It is surrounded by the districts of Fatehgarh Sahib & Rupnagar and the Union Territory of Chandigarh in the north, Sangrur district in the west, Ambala and Kurukshetra districts of neighbouring state of Haryana in the east and Kaithal district of Haryana in the south.
How to reach Patiala ?
Patiala district is a predominantly rural district.. As per the 2001 census, an overwhelming 65% lived in rural areas and only 35% lived in urban areas.
After the partition of India in 1947, a large number of refugees from west Punjab came and settled in Patiala district. The single largest group of refugees was from Bahawalpur. Apart from this, a sizeable number came from Gujjranwala and Sheikhpura. According to the 1951 census, the total number of displaced persons in the district was 1,19,518.
The Sikhs and the Hindus are the predominant communities in the district. The Sikh form 55% of the population while the Hindus form 42%, the remaining being the Christians, the Muslim, the Jains and the Buddhists.
Geographically, Punjab is divided into four regions, know as Malwa. Majha, Doaba and Puadh. Patiala district falls in the Puadh region and standard dialect spoken in the district is known as Puadhi. Although this dialect is almost the same in grammar as the standard dialect of Punjabi language, the distinguishing character of this dialect is that ,to a very large extent, it is influenced by Hindi spoken in the adjoining districts which now a part of Haryana.
Patiala district with an area of 3625 Sq. kms. was the 5th largest district of the Punjab (area wise) after Ferozepur, Amritsar, Sangrur and Ludhiana as per 2001 census but with the formation of new district Mohali,Sub Division Dera Bassi becomes Part of Mohali district.Earlier Dera Bassi tehsil was part of Patiala district.
Administrative Sub-divisions :-
Patiala district is sub-divided into 5 sub-divisons/tehsils, 3 sub-tehsils and 8 blocks.
The district forms a part of the Indo- Gangetic plain and consists of three types of region :-
Apart from this, the district has a complex drainage system consisting of canals and rivers. The river Ghaghar is the most important water channel of the district. It is essentially a seasonal stream, remaining dry during most part of the year. However, during the rainy session, it remains in spate, often flooding the adjoining villages, causing damage to crops, livestock and at times to houses and human lives. A number of subsidiary rivulets join the Ghaggar River, the most important ones being the Tangri Nadi, Patiala-Wali-Nadi, Sirhind Choe and the Jhambowali Choe.
Apart from the natural drainage line, the district also has three important canals- The Bhakra Main Line canal, the Nawana Branch, and the Ghaghar Link. These canals provide much needed irrigation water to the district. Before these canals were constructed, Patiala district was a water scarce area. These irrigation canals have helped to transform the parched fields into fertile, double-crop lands.
The Climate here is typical of Punjab plain i.e. very hot in summer and very cold in winter. The district is generally dry and hot, with monsoon lasting three months. Both summer and winter are severe. The annual average rainfall is 688mm. On an average there are 61 rainy days. The variation in rainfall is appreciable. The month of May is the hottest with the mean monthly maximum temperature of 43.1oCelsius. January is the coldest month with mean monthly minimum temperature of 2.1oCelsius.
Temperature & Rainfall in Patiala: