HISTORY OF CHITTORGARH
Chitaurgarh (Hindi: चित्तौड़गढ़) pronunciation (help•info)} (also Chittor, Chittaur, or Chitorgarh) is a city and a municipality in Rajasthan state of western India. It lies on the Berach River, a tributary of the Banas, and is the administrative headquarters of Chittorgharh District and a former capital of the Sisodia Dynasty of Mewar. The city of Chittaurgarh is located on the banks of river Gambhiri and Berach. The district was bifurcated and a new district namely Pratap Garh was created with certain portion taken from Udaipur district in the newly created district of Pratap Garh.
Fiercely independent, the fort of Chittor was under siege thrice and each time they fought bravely and thrice Jauhar was committed by the ladies and children, first led by Rani Padmini, and later by Rani Karnavati. The famous warriors Gora and Badal, in the war against Allaudin Khalji (1303 AD), have become legendary. The sacrifice of Jaimal and Phata in the war against the Mughals (1568 AD) was so great that the Mughal Emperor Akbar installed their statues in the fort of Agra. It has also been land of worship for Meera. Chittorgarh is home to the Chittorgarh Fort, the largest fort in Chittorgarh.
Chittorgarh Fort precincts
Tower of Fame|Reservoir|Tower of Victory
Vijay Stambha or "Tower of Victory"
Chittorgarh is the epitome of Chattari Rajput (an Indian Warrior caste) pride, romance and spirit, for people of Chittor always chose death before surrendering against anyone. It reverberates with history of heroism and sacrifice that is evident from the tales still sung by the bards of Rajasthan. Though it can now be called a ruined citadel there is much more to this huge fort. It is a symbol of all that was brave, true and noble in the glorious Rajput tradition.
View of the Tower of Victory, 1927
Historically, it is considered that Chittor was built by the Maurya dynasty in the 7th century AD. It was then named Chitrakut after Chitrangada Mori, a Rajput chieftain as inscribed on ancient Mewari coins. The fort is surrounded by a circular wall which has seven huge gates before one can enter inside the main fort area. Some accounts say that the Mori dynasty was in possession of the fort when Bappa Rawal the founder of the kingdom of Mewar seized Chittor garh (Chittor fort) and made it his capital in 734 AD. While some other accounts say Bappa Rawal received it as a part of the dowry after marriage with the last Solanki princess. After that date his descendants ruled Mewar, which stretched from Gujarat to Ajmer, until the 16th century. Chittor was one of the most contested seats of power in India with probably some of the most glorious battles being fought over its possession. It is famous in the annals of the Mewar Dynasty as its first capital (prior to this, the Guhilots, forerunners of the Mewar Dynasty, ruled from Idar, Bhomat, and Nagda), and renowned in India's long struggle for freedom. By tradition, it remained the Mewar capital for 834 years. With only brief interruptions, the fort has always remained in possession of the Sisodias of the Guhilot (or Gehlot/Guhila) clan of Rajputs, who descended from Bappa Rawal.
The first attack was by Alauddin Khilji in 1303 AD, who was enamoured by the beauty of Padmini of which he had only heard. Rani Padmini preferred death to abduction and dishonour and committed jauhar (an act of self-immolation by leaping into a large fire) along with all the other ladies of the fort. All the men left the fort in saffron robes to fight the enemy unto death. Chittorgarh was captured in 1303 AD by Ala ud din Khilji, Sultan of Delhi who led a huge army. Elderly people then had the responsibility to raise the children. It was recaptured in 1326 by the young Hammir Singh, a scion of the same Gehlot clan. The dynasty (and clan) fathered by him came to be known by the name Sisodia after the village where he was born.
Rana Kumbha (1433–68) was a versatile man a brilliant, poet and musician. He built mewar up to a position of unassailable military strength building a chain of thirty forts that girdled the kingdom But, perhaps more important was a patron of the arts to rival Lorenzo de' Medici, and he made Chittorgarh a dazzling cultural center whose fame spread right across Hindustan.
By the 16th century, Mewar had become the leading Rajput state. Rana Sanga of Mewar led the combined Rajput forces against the Mughal emperor Babur in 1527, but was defeated at the Battle of Khanua. Later in 1535 Bahadur Shah, the Sultan of Gujarat besieged the fort causing immense carnage. It is said that again just like in the case of Jauhar led by Padmini in 1303, all 32,000 men then living in the fort donned the saffron robes of martyrdom and rode out to face certain death in the war, and their women folk committed Jauhar led by Rani Karnawati. The ultimate sacrifice for freedom, Jauhar was again performed for the third time after the Mughal Emperor Akbar captured Chittorgarh in 1568. The capital was moved west to Udaipur, in the foothills of the Aravalli Range, where Rana Udai Singh II (the young heir apparent) had established a residence in 1559. Udaipur remained the capital of Mewar until it acceded unto the union of India in 1947, and Chittorgarh gradually lost its political importance.
Bhumihars along with others, in some places, were also involved in anti-Muslim communal violence during the Partition of India. and during the 1893 Anti-Muslim riots. Chittorgarh is also famous for its association with two very widely known historical figures of India. The first is, Meera Bai the most famous female Hindu spiritual poetess whose compositions are still popular throughout North India. Her poems follow the Bhakti tradition and she is considered to be most passionate worshipper of lord Krishna. Folklore says that her love for Krishna was epitomized by her final disappearance in the temple of Krishna in Dwarka. She is believed to have entered the sanctum of the temple in a state of singing ecstasy after which the sanctum doors are believed to have closed on their own and when later opened, the sari of Mirabai was seen enwrapped around the idol of Lord Krishna, symbolizing the culmination of her union with her Lord.
The great Maharana Pratap, son of Rana Udai Singh II who is regarded as a personification of the values Rajputs cherish and die for. He took an oath to spend his life living in the jungles and fighting until he could realize his dream of reconquering Chittorgarh from Akbar (and thus reclaiming the glory of Mewar). It was the dream greatly cherished by Maharana Pratap, and he spent all his life to achieve this goal. He underwent hardships and a life of eating breads made of grass while fighting his lifelong battle. Maharana Pratap is the greatest hero in the eyes of the Rajputs of Mewar. In the absolute dark era of Rajput history, Maharana Pratap alone stood firmly for his honour and dignity, never compromising his honour for safety. With the reputation of a brave man with great character even among his enemies, he died free in 1597.
Chittorgarh remains replete with historic associations and holds a very special place in the hearts of Rajputs, as it was a bastion of the clan at a time when every other stronghold had succumbed to invasion. It is often called as the "Bhakti aur Shakti ki nagari" (land of devotion and strength). The fort and the city of Chittorgarh also hosts the biggest Rajput festival "Jauhar Mela". It takes place annually on the anniversary of one of the jauhars, not the one by Padmini which is most famous. This festival is to commemorate the bravery of Rajput ancestors and all three Jauhars which happened at Chittorgarh. A huge number of Rajputs which include the descendants of most of the princely families do a procession to celebrate the Jauhar. The fort at Chittorgarh also contains the ancient and beautiful temple to Goddess Kali called the Kalika Mata Temple.
Chittorgarh is located at 24.88°N 74.63°E. It has an average elevation of 394 metres (1292 ft).
The completed Golden Quadrilateral highway system will pass through Chittorgarh, connecting it to much of the rest of India. Also crossing the East West Corridor (Express Highway). The Chittorgarh is situated at National Highway No. 76 & 79, both the Highways are crossing at Chittorgarh. National Highway 76 connects to Kota within 2 hours. It is well connected by rail with Jaipur via Bhilwara and Ajmer, Kota via Bundi, Jodhpur via Ajmer, Indore Junction BG, Bhopal, Indore Mhow, Ujjain, Ratlam, Nagda Junction, Ajmer and Fatehabad by many Broad gauge trains. The city is also connected to Udaipur City via Mavli Jn. It is also connected to Kota via Bundi. Thus, Chittaur Garh is a major rail junction of south Rajasthan. Some weekly trains to Hyderabad and Kolakata are passing through this station. The town still lacks connectivity to Bikaner, Ahmedabad, Jabalpur and Nagpur, so in order to catch trains for further cities one has to reach Kota.
The Chittorgarh Fort seated on a 180 metre hill, covers an expanse of 700 acres (2.8 km2). It was constructed by the Mauryans in the 7th century AD. There is also a belief that it was constructed by Bhima of the Pancha Pandavas. This fort was the citadel of many great Indian warriors such as Gora, Badal,Rana Kumbha, Maharana Pratap, Jaimal, Patta, etc.
Kalika Mata Temple
Kalika Mata Temple
Kalika Mata Temple was originally built in the 8th century for Sun God and was later converted to a temple for mother Goddess, Kali in the 14th century.During the festival days of Navaratri, fairs are organised and pilgrims from different places come here to pay obeisance at the temple.
Vijay Stambha, is a huge nine storey tower which was built by Maharana Kumbha to commemorate his victory over the Muslim rulers of Malwa and Gujarat in 1440. The tower is 122 ft (37 m) high and stands on a 10 ft (3.0 m) high base. There are sculptures and carvings on the exterior walls of the tower. The tower is visible from any section of the town below. And for reaching tower top one have to climb 157 steps, one can take great view of the surroundings. The inside walls of the tower are carved with images of Gods, weapons, etc.
Kirti Stambh is tower is dedicated to Rishabha, the first Tirthankara of Jainism. It was built by a merchant and is decorated with figures form the Jain pantheon.It is a seven storied pillar which was build by Biherwal Mahajan Sanaya of Digambar Jain sect during 12th century AD. On its four corners are engraved idols of Shri Adinathji in Digambar style which each are five feet (about 1.5meters) high and elsewhere are engraved several small idols consecrated to Jain lineage of deities.
Jain Kirti Stambha
Rana Kumbha's Palace
Rana Kumbha's Palace is near the Vijay Stambh. This is the birthplace of Maharana Udai Singh, the founder of Udaipur. His life was saved by the heroic act of the maid Panna Dhay, who replaced her son in place of the prince, with the result that her son was killed by Banbir. She carried the prince away to safety in a fruit basket. Rani Meera Bai also lived in this palace. This is the place where Rani Padmini committed jauhar with the other ladies in one of the underground cellars.
Rani Padmini's Palace
Rani Padmini's Palace is from which Alauddin Khilji (one of the rulers of Khilji dynasty during the sultanate rule over India) was allowed to watch a reflection of the Rani by replacing the mirror at such an angle that even if he turned back he could not see the room. Khilji had been warned by the Rani's husband Rawal Ratan Singh that if he turned back they would cut his neck.
Dedicated to Lord Siva, the temple was built by Bhoja Pamaror powar one of Banjara group in early 11th century AD. Later on Mokal renovated it in AD 1428. The temple consists of garbhagriha, an antarala and a gudha-mandapa with mukhmandapa (entrance porch) on all the three faces, i.e., northern, western and southern sides. A colossal image of three faced Shiva is enshrined in the sanctum.
Originally dedicated to Varaha (boar incarnation of Vishnu) the temple was built in 8th century AD and largely renovated by Maharana Kumbha (AD 1433-68). It is built on a raised plinth and consists of a garbhagriha, an antarala, a mandapa, an ardhamandapa and an open pradakshinapath. An image of Varaha is shown in the principal niche on the back of the shrine. In front of the temple is an image of Garuda under a canopy. On the north, there is a small shrine known as Meera Mandir.
Ratan Singh Palace
Located along the Ratneshwar pond, this palace is attributed to Rana Ratan Singh II (AD 1528-31). It is rectangular on plan and comprises a courtyard surrounded by rooms and a pavilion with balcony on the eastern part of the second storey.
Fateh Prakash Palace
This magnificent double storeyed palace was built by Maharaja Fateh Singh (AD 1884-1930). It is an edifice with a tower on each of its four corners crowned by domed chhattries. This palace is a grand specimen of modern Indian architecture and at present houses a museum.
Other havelis of relatively lesser significance include those of Alha Kabra, Fatta and Jaimal, Khatan-ka-Mahal and Purohitji-ki-haveli.
SIGHT SEEING PLACES
One of the most important townships of the Mauryan era in Rajasthan, situated on the banks of river Bairach. It was formerly known as Madhyamika, which flourished from the Maurya to Gupta era. The excavations overhere have unearthed many interesting facts and have showed signs of strong Hindu and Buddhist influence.
BAROLO (140 Km-Tehsil-Rawatbhata)
The ruins of the famous temples of babaroli, near Rawatbhata. This town is worth visiting, because of the group of ancient temples situated here.
BASSI WILDLIFE SANCTUARY(25Km-Tehsil-Chittorgarh)
The wildlife sanctuary covers an area of 50 Sq.Km. near Bassi village. The key fauna of the sanctuary are panther, wild boar, antelopes and mongoose. Migratory birds also visit the sanctuary. For entry into the sanctuary, prior permision is to be obtained from the District Forst Officer, Chittaurgarh.
SANWARIYA JI TEMPLE (40 Km-Tehsil-Bhadesar)
The temple is dedicated to Lord Krishn, situated on the Chittaurgarh - Udaipur highway. This is not a very old structure and is an important Hindu pilgrimage centre.
MATRI KUNDIYA TEMPLE (45 Km-Tehsil-Rashmi)
Also famous as the "Haridwar of Mewar", the shrine is dedicated to Lord Shiva.
BHAINSORGARH WILDLIFE SANCTUARY
The sanctuary lies in the lush green environs of Bhainsrogarh, invaluable archaeological remains can also be seen here.
The 350 year old castle built by Rao Shakti Singh, the youngest brother of Maharaja Pratap, is the major attraction. it has now been covered into a hotel.
The sanctuary is dpread over the Aravali and Vindhyachal ranges and is the only forest where teak trees of building value are found. The thickly vegetated sanctuary has about 50% teak trees besided salar, tendu, amla, bamboo and bel etc. three rivers flow through the forest Jakham and Karmoi are the major ones. A huge dam has been constructed over the Jakham river for irrigation, and wild animals in the sanctuary.
The key fauna of the sanctuary are leopard, hyena, jackal, fox, jungle cat, porcupine, spotted dear, wild bear, four horned antelope and nilgai etc.
The most important and conspicuous animal of the sanctuary is the flying squirrel, which can be observed gliding between the trees during night, this nocturnal creatures hides in the daylight, the best time to watch the squirrel is in the months of February and March at Arampura Guest House, when most trees shed their leaves making it easier to spot the squirrel.
The sanctuary is also associated with mythological events it is believed that sita wife of Lord Ram stayed here during the period of her exile in the ashram of Saint Valmiki.
DEOGARH (125 Km)
The 16th century fort near Pratapgarh, is famous for the palaces, their murals and Jain temple.
MENAL (90 Km)
This is also known as the "mini khajauraho", blessed with natures beauty, this picnic spot is situated on the Chittaur - Bundi raod, and is famous for the ancient temples, waterfalls and beautiful forests.
GOTMESHWAR (130 Km)
The place is famous for the ancient temple dedicated to Lord Shiva.
JOGNIYA MATA JI